What is Corona Virus?

What is Corona Virus?


Corona viruses are a family of respiratory viruses, having crown-like spikes on their surface. They're notorious to mutate quickly and acquire new qualities. Corona viruses can cause diseases starting from respiratory disease to life-threatening pneumonia, especially in vulnerable populations. 

Patients infected with COVID-19 showed higher leukocyte counts (increased TLC), abnormal respiratory findings, and increased levels of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines. 

Lung epithelial cells are the first target of the virus. The primary step of infection is the binding of a receptor expressed by host cells followed by fusion with the cyto-membrane. Human-to-human transmissions occur by the binding between the receptor-binding domain of virus spikes and therefore, the cellular receptor which has been identified as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. 

The most pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection as a system a respiratorium targeting virus was severe pneumonia, RNAaemia, combined with the incidence of ground-glass opacities, and acute cardiac injury. Patients with COVID-19 infection were noted with significant-high blood levels of chemokines and cytokines.

The symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure and will vary in severity. Symptoms include mainly fever, cough with some having difficulty in breathing or diarrhea. Chest radiography may show invasive pneumonic infiltrates in both lungs. Severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney disease or death can occur. The unique feature with COVID-19 includes the targeting of the lower airway as evident by upper tract symptoms like sneezing, rhinorrhoea and soar throat and in a number of cases an infiltrate within the upper lobe of the lung on chest radiography, that's related to increasing dyspnea with hypoxemia.

Transmission: 

Current information suggests that the route of human-to-human transmission of COVID-19 is either via respiratory droplets (within approximately 6 feet (2 meters) of somebody who has respiratory symptoms (eg. sneezing, coughing, etc.) or contact with an environment contaminated with infectious secretions which can include sputum, serum, blood, and respiratory droplets. 

Higher viral loads within the nose and the throat are detected soon after symptom onset suggesting that the viral supermolecule shedding pattern of patients infected with COVID-19 resembles with Influenza patients and appears different from that seen in SARS-CoV patient’s infection. 

Risk Factors include persons living in China around Wuhan, elderly persons above the age of fifty years, persons with underlying diseases like diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, cardiovascular diseases still as health care workers caring for COVID-19 patients. 

Majority cases are reported from China, mostly from Hubei Province. Confirmed cases reported outside of China are from various countries, mainly —- Singapore, Japan, Republic of Korea, Thailand and Iran.

General Precautions to be followed in the least times:

*Follow the culture of ‘Namaste’
*Practice hand-hygiene several times.
*Avoid close contact if anyone shows symptoms of the coughing and sneezing.
*Wear a mask if you've got respiratory symptoms like cough or runny nose
*Follow Respiratory Hygiene /Cough Etiquette
*Follow safe food practices, i.e eat well-cooked food which has been cooked hygienically
*Avoid trip to farms, live animal markets or where animals are slaughtered
*Restrict visitors at your home.
*Keep a window open permanently for proper ventilation/airflow.
*Do not share kerchief or towel, eating utensils/dishes, glasses or cups, bedding, or other items with the suspected one.
*Clean all “high-touch” areas/objects like office counters, tabletops, doorknobs/handles, bathroom fixtures, digital phones, keyboards and mouse, tablets, and bedside tables, every day.
*Monitor your health ranging from the day you initially had close contact with the person and continue for 14 days after you last had close contact with the person. a. Fever. Take your temperature twice daily. b. Coughing. c. Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing. d. Other symptoms like chills, body aches, raw throat, headache, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, and runny nose Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette:
*Practice frequent hand-hygiene in the least times. Wash hands with soap and water or use 60-95% alcohol-based hand-rub, preferably 70-80%).
*Keep two hand lengths or minimum 6 feet distance from someone who is sneezing or coughing.
*Cough or sneeze into the within of elbow or arm, not hands
*Whenever possible, use disposable tissues to hide your cough and cold.
*Follow proper disposable of used tissues by immediately into an appropriate waste bin and practice hand-hygiene with sanitizer or alcohol-based hand disinfectant.
*Offer a surgical mask to one who is coughing or sneezing.